The Unicode block for Katakana Phonetic Extensions is U+31F0–U+31FF: Historic and variant forms of Japanese kana characters were added to the Unicode standard in October 2010 with the release of version 6.0. There are rare instances where the opposite has occurred, with kanji forms created from words originally written in katakana. However, in foreign loanwords katakana instead uses a vowel extender mark, called a chōonpu ("long vowel mark"). Katakana | Geminated consonants are common in transliterations of foreign loanwords; for example English "bed" is represented as ベッド (beddo). Some of them are mostly used for writing the Ainu language, the others are called bidakuon in Japanese. Katakana and hiragana are both kana systems. [13], Early on, katakana was almost exclusively used by men for official text and text imported from China.[14]. Katakana (片仮名、カタカナ, Japanese pronunciation: [katakaꜜna][note 1]) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana,[2] kanji and in some cases the Latin script (known as rōmaji). Three of the syllabograms to be expected, yi, ye and wu, may have been used idiosyncratically with varying glyphs, but never became conventional in any language and are not present at all in modern Japanese. The script includes two diacritic marks placed at the upper right of the base character that change the initial sound of a syllabogram. These characters are used for the Ainu language only. Addition of the small y kana is called yōon. This is because words for colors are inherently arbitrary, since there are an unlimited number of ways to break up spectrum of red to violet, not to mention differences in brightness and saturation.It should come as no surprise, then, that languages also vary in how they name colors, even very basic colors. Similarly, katakana is usually used for country names, foreign places, and foreign personal names. In addition to the usual full-width (全角, zenkaku) display forms of characters, katakana has a second form, half-width (半角, hankaku) (there are no kanji). Circled katakana are code points U+32D0–U+32FE in the Enclosed CJK Letters and Months block (U+3200–U+32FF). [10], More recent scholarship indicates that katakana is likely based on a system of writing from the Korean Peninsula. Several popular Japanese encodings such as EUC-JP, Unicode and Shift JIS have half-width katakana code as well as full-width. [11][12] Linguist Alexander Vovin elaborates on Kobayashi's argument, asserting that katakana derives from the Korean gugyeol (구결) system. For example, the titles of mini discs can only be entered in ASCII or half-width katakana, and half-width katakana are commonly used in computerized cash register displays, on shop receipts, and Japanese digital television and DVD subtitles. This is a short line (ー) following the direction of the text, horizontal for yokogaki (horizontal text), and vertical for tategaki (vertical text). Katakana are also sometimes used to indicate words being spoken in a foreign or otherwise unusual accent. Learn Hiragana & Katakana with an Online Quiz. This was the approach taken by the influential American linguistics scholar Eleanor Harz Jorden in Japanese: The Written Language (parallel to Japanese: The Spoken Language).[9]. Ainu also uses three handakuten modified katakana, セ゚ ([tse]), and ツ゚ or ト゚ ([tu̜]). Although their display form is not specified in the standard, in practice they were designed to fit into the same rectangle of pixels as Roman letters to enable easy implementation on the computer equipment of the day. Similarly, difficult-to-read kanji such as 癌 gan ("cancer") are often written in katakana or hiragana. Words the writer wishes to emphasize in a sentence are also sometimes written in katakana, mirroring the usage of italics in European languages.[3]. The Unicode block for (full-width) katakana is U+30A0–U+30FF. It may also be appended to the vowel row or the a column. By contrast, ISO-2022-JP has no half-width katakana, and is mainly used over SMTP and NNTP. In contrast to the hiragana syllabary, which is used for Japanese words not covered by kanji and for grammatical inflections, the katakana syllabary usage is quite similar to italics in English; specifically, it is used for transcription of foreign-language words into Japanese and the writing of loan words (collectively gairaigo); for emphasis; to represent onomatopoeia; for technical and scientific terms; and for names of plants, animals, minerals and often Japanese companies. Existing schemes for the romanization of Japanese either are based on the systematic nature of the script, e.g. A dot below the initial kana represents aspirated consonants, and チ, ツ, サ, セ, ソ, ウ and オ with a superpositional bar represent sounds found only in Taiwanese. "[7] Most students who have learned hiragana "do not have great difficulty in memorizing" katakana as well. Katakana with dakuten or handakuten follow the gojūon kana without them. Pre–World War II official documents mix katakana and kanji in the same way that hiragana and kanji are mixed in modern Japanese texts, that is, katakana were used for okurigana and particles such as wa or o. Katakana were also used for telegrams in Japan before 1988, and for computer systems – before the introduction of multibyte characters – in the 1980s. The characters don’t represent unique meanings the way Chinese characters do. The sokuon also sometimes appears at the end of utterances, where it denotes a glottal stop. Numbers | Rōmaji | In Japanese this is an important distinction in pronunciation; for example, compare サカ saka "hill" with サッカ sakka "author". The result will be this ・ This is commonly used to show the break in foreign origin words. In addition to fonts intended for Japanese text and Unicode catch-all fonts (like Arial Unicode MS), many fonts intended for Chinese (such as MS Song) and Korean (such as Batang) also include katakana. The system was devised by the Okinawa Center of Language Study of the University of the Ryukyus. Some instructors teaching Japanese as a foreign language "introduce katakana after the students have learned to read and write sentences in hiragana without difficulty and know the rules. For instance, the kanji 人 has a Japanese pronunciation, written in hiragana as ひと hito (person), as well as a Chinese derived pronunciation, written in katakana as ジン jin (used to denote groups of people). If you like this site and find it useful, you can support it by making a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or by contributing in other ways. The full-width versions of these characters are found in the Hiragana block.


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