Younger leaves feature high concentrations of TCS1 transcripts, allowing more caffeine to be synthesized during this time. Tea plants will grow into a tree if left undisturbed, but cultivated plants are pruned to waist height for ease of plucking. sinensis and C. s. var. Last update on 2019-06-13: Now containing 11906 plants. Unlike Southern Yunnan Assam tea, Western Yunnan Assam tea shares many genetic similarities with Indian Assam type tea (also C. s. var. Hundreds,[14] if not thousands of cultivars of C. sinensis are known. web interface by Two principal varieties are used, the small-leaved Chinese variety plant (C. s. sinensis) and the large-leaved Assamese plant (C. s. assamica), used mainly for black tea. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. The Chinese plant is a small-leafed bush with multiple stems that reaches a height of some 3 m. It is native to southeast China. Carl Linnaeus chose his name in 1753 for the genus to honor Kamel's contributions to botany[5] (although Kamel did not discover or name this plant, or any Camellia,[6] and Linnaeus did not consider this plant a Camellia but a Thea).[7]. Camellia sinensis assamica is a variation of Camellia sinensis. [2] Of these, C. sinensis var. Four varieties of C. sinensis are recognized. Camellia sinensis is an evergreen, multi-stemmed shrub growing up to 3 metres tall (var sinensis), or a tree that can reach 10 - 15 metres tall with one main stem (var assamica). Comments have to be approved before they are shown here. However, later genetic work showed that it is a hybrid between Chinese small leaf tea and assam type tea. This hand picking is repeated every one to two weeks. Common names include "tea plant", "tea shrub", and "tea tree" (not to be confused with Melaleuca alternifolia, the source of tea tree oil, or Leptospermum scoparium, the New Zealand tea tree). However, since no wild populations of this tea are known, the precise location of its origin is speculative. Many types of Southern Yunnan Assam tea have been hybridized with the closely related species Camellia taliensis. Ken Fern, assamica is better suited to warmer climates whereas var. Show All Show Tabs Assam tea dehungensis (Hung T. Chang & BH Chen) TL Ming are sometimes used locally. Older leaves are deeper green. Three main kinds of tea are produced in India: Nepali tea is also considered to be similar to the tea produced in Darjeeling, mostly because the eastern part of Nepal, where a large amount of tea is produced, has similar topography to that of Darjeeling. The plant is not self-fertile. C. s. var. sinensis and C. s. var. It is seen on Sunset Peak and Tai Mo Shan in Hong Kong. Some Indian Assam tea appears to have hybridized with the species Camellia pubicosta. with help from C. sinensis var. [17] The young, light-green leaves are preferably harvested for tea production; they have short, white hairs on the underside. If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. Although health benefits have been assumed throughout the history of using tea as a common beverage, no high-quality evidence shows that tea confers significant benefits. Species of flowering plant in the family Theaceae, "Tea plant" redirects here. It is hardy to zone (UK) 9. This plant is considered more tropical than its Chinese variety, growing larger and producing bigger leaves (due to a climate with plenty of rain and warm temperatures). C. sinensis is mainly cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates, in areas with at least 127 cm (50 in) of rainfall a year. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. In 2017, Chinese scientists sequenced the genome of C. s. var. [3] White tea, yellow tea, green tea, oolong, dark tea (which includes pu-erh tea) and black tea are all harvested from one or the other, but are processed differently to attain varying levels of oxidation. Wambulwa, MC, MK Meegahakumbura, R Chalo, List of Lepidoptera that feed on Camellia, International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, ITIS Standard Report Page Camellia Sinensis, International Association for Plant Taxonomy, "Indications for three independent domestication events for the tea plant (, "Domestication origin and breeding history of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) in China and India based on nuclear microsatellites and cpDNA sequence data", "Identification of Japanese tea (Camellia sinensis) cultivars using SSR marker", "Varietal differences in the adaptability of tea [Camellia sinensis] cultivars to light nitrogen application", "The Tea Tree Genome Provides Insights into Tea Flavor and Independent Evolution of Caffeine Biosynthesis", "Secrets of tea plant revealed by science", "Expression of caffeine biosynthesis genes in tea (Camellia sinensis)", "Purification and characterization of caffeine synthase from tea leaves", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Camellia_sinensis&oldid=989158160, Plants used in traditional Chinese medicine, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2014, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Chinese Western Yunnan Assam (large leaf) tea [, Chinese Southern Yunnan Assam (large leaf) tea [, Antibacterial Activity of Green Tea Extracts against, This page was last edited on 17 November 2020, at 11:12. The database and code is licensed under a The plant is also named Assam Tea. [18] It contains about three billion base pairs, which was larger than most plants previously sequenced.[19]. Camellia sinensis assamica (Assam tea or Indian tea), on the other hand, thrives in the Assam region of Northern India. The leaves are much larger than the Chinese variety. It was discovered in a region called Assam in India, this fact can still be seen in the species name. [27][28] The biosynthetic pathway in C. sinensis differs from other caffeine-producing plants such as coffee or guayusa. If you enjoy tea, you will probably know that there are two main varieties of Camellia sinensis used to make tea: Camellia sinensis var. The plantation is in the background, with a nursery full of germinating tea seeds in the foreground, http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/, https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ncnu02/v5-toc.html, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Robert Sweet shifted all formerly Thea species to the genus Camellia in 1818. [11][12], Given their genetic differences forming distinct clades, Chinese Assam type tea (C. s. var. [23] This variety is commonly called Waldenae Camellia. There are two main varieties used: Camellia sinensis var. It thrives in tropical areas and low elevation. For the unrelated evergreen flowering plant, see. Camellia sinensis is a species of evergreen shrubs or small trees in the flowering plant family Theaceae whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. 9 March 2018. [24][25] In clinical research over the early 21st century, tea has been studied extensively for its potential to lower the risk of human diseases, but none of this research is conclusive as of 2017.[24]. Fresh leaves contain about 4% caffeine, as well as related compounds including theobromine. [11][12], Chinese small leaf type tea was introduced into India in 1836 by the British and some Indian Assam type tea (e.g. Useful Tropical Plants Database 2014 by Thus, Western Yunnan Assam tea and Indian Assam tea both may have originated from the same parent plant in the area where southwestern China, Indo-Burma, and Tibet meet. Masters) Kitam. Camellia sinensis is a species of evergreen shrubs or small trees in the flowering plant family Theaceae whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. lasiocaly) was originally considered a type of assam tea. [10], Chinese (small leaf) type tea may have originated in southern China possibly with hybridization of unknown wild tea relatives. It is the tallest of the C. sinensis varieties and can grow to a height of 98ft and live several centuries.

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